Effects of smoking on the respiratory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:
Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box)
Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages
Impairment of the lungs’ clearance system, leading to the build-up of poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage
Increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing
Permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.
Effects of smoking on the circulatory system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:
Raised blood pressure and heart rate
Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature
Less oxygen carried by the blood
Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting
Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
Reduced blood flow to extremities like fingers and toes
Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.
Effects of smoking on the immune system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:
The immune system doesn’t work as well
The person is more prone to infections such as pneumonia and influenza
Illnesses are more severe and it takes longer to get over them.
Lower levels of protective antioxidants (such as Vitamin C), in the blood.
Effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system
The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:
Tightening of certain muscles
Reduced bone density.
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